The CCS Chain


      Construction of CCS plant    
Mining of coal(+40%) Transpor - tation of coal (+40%) On site studies Operation of CCS plant Transport and injection of CO2 Storage of CO2

The CCS technology involves a range of physical processes that all consume energy, raw materials, water, etc. and lead to emissions of various pollutants and CO2. In accounting for environmental and CO2 effects of CCS all stages of the CCS chain must be included, because every stage represents an inseparable part of the whole system without which the technology can not function. This is what we mean by systemic constraints of CCS.